India is one of the oldest civilizations with the largest democracy in the world. As the 7th largest country in the world, it is full of diversity and rich cultural heritage. India stands apart from the rest of Asia, edged by the Great Himalayas in the north, it spans southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.


When several cultures were hardly migrating forest inmates over 5000 years ago, Indians developed Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization). The Aryans were the citizens of the ‘River Indus’, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu. But by the time the Persians conquered the Indian subcontinent and Greece in 5th century BC, the land of 'Sindhu' came to be 'Hindus’. And from the Greek Herodotus 'Hindus' evolved to 'Indos' and made its first-ever appearance in Old English in the 9th century. And further in the 17th century as 'Indos' brought into Modern English the name 'India' came into existence. And today, we use it as the official name of the Republic of India.


After India, the most popularly used name is ‘Hindustan’, and this also holds a historical significance. 'Hind' is the Persian match of 'Sindh' that relates to the Indo-Aryans while 'stan' in Persian means 'land', much like 'sthana' in Sanskrit that means 'place'. When the British governed India, the term 'Hind' was widely obtained for the north and northwestern subcontinents of India where Indo-Aryan culture was established. Hindustan is not the official name of India, but it is a popularly used term.


The first article of the Constitution of India states that "India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states," entirely systemizing "India" and "Bharat" as equally official short names for the Republic of India. "Bharat", the name for India in several Indian languages, is variously said to be derived from the name of Rishabha's son Bharata, this name dates back to the ancient Hindu scriptures that tell the story of the legendary Emperor Bharata, the first conqueror of the entire Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India. Moreover, the Sanskrit term 'Bharata' means 'the cherished'. Bharata is speculated to be the father of the famous Bharata dynasty. Therefore, after he conquered the entire Indian land where he and his children inhabited, it began to be recognized as 'Bharatavarsa,' where ‘varsa’ meant 'land' or 'continent'.

Today, our country India is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. And it is an emerging and developing country, and one of the world's fastest-growing economies. India has achieved all the socio-economic progress since Independence. Of this blend of cultures, beliefs and growths are a nation of varying identities of India, Hindustan, and Bharat.

(Source: Wikipedia/